Akande, K. E., & Fabiyi, E. F. (2010). Cowpea. [5] The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is the main preharvest pest of the cowpea. Kalogeropoulos, N., Chiou, A., Ioannou, M., Karathanos, V. T., Hassapidou, M., & Andrikopoulos, N. K. (2010). Subuola, F., Widodo, Y., & Kehinde, T. (2012). Cowpea production in family plots is quite popular in both regions, suggesting that cowpea should no longer be considered just a “women’s crop.” Different varieties of crops are sold in the south, whereas cowpea is a major cash crop in the north. Birds, especially of the parrot family, could be a problem for Cowpea crops, as they can pull-up emerging seedlings and feed on developing green pods. The plant produces clusters of flowers at the end of a peduncle (flower stalk) and 2–3 seed pods per peduncle. sesquipedalis), a subgroup of cowpea, is an important vegetable legume crop of Asia where its young pods are consumed in both fresh and cooked forms. [16] Black-eyed pea, a common name used for the unguiculata cultivar group, describes the presence of a distinctive black spot at the hilum of the seed. EVALUATION OF INTRODUCED COWPEA BREEDING LINES IN SOUTH AFRICA BY TSOBEDI ABSALOM MASENYA MINI-DISSERTATION Submitted in (partial) fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Agriculture (Agronomy) In the FACULTY OF SCIENCE AND AGRICULTURE (School of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences) at the UNIVERSITY OF … Select from premium Cowpea of the highest quality. Find the perfect Cowpea stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images. (2017). Species: V. unguiculata. Traditional methods of protecting stored grain include using the insecticidal properties of Neem extracts, mixing the grain with ash or sand, using vegetable oils, combining ash and oil into a soap solution or treating the cowpea pods with smoke or heat. Chavan, J. K., Kadam, S. S., & Beuchat, L. R. (1989). Jakkanwar, S., Rathod, R., & Annapure, U. Shevkani, K., Kaur, A., Kumar, S., & Singh, N. (2015). (2017). Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), a renewed multipurpose crop for a more sustainable Agri-food system: Nutritional advantages and constraints. Carvalho, M., Lino-Neto, T., Rosa, E., & Carnide, V. (2017). Garcia JA, Hillie J, Goldbach R (1987) Transformation of cowpea Vigna unguiculata cells with a full length DNA copy of cowpea mosaic virus m-RNA. [49] The plant is susceptible to mosaic viruses, which cause a green mosaic pattern to appear in the leaves. (2008). [71] The Sahel region also contains other major producers such as Burkina Faso, Ghana, Senegal, and Mali. In M. E. Dulloo, I. Thormann, M. A. Jorge, & J. Hanson (Eds.). In Kenya, it is popularly known as Kunde. [28] The first written references to the cowpea were in 300 BC and they probably reached Central and North America during the slave trade through the 17th to early 19th centuries. The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is one of several species of the widely grown genus Vigna. Morphological study of cultivated cowpea. 304 European Journal of Sustainable Development (2012), 1, 2, 303-314 (Agbogidi, 2010a). GRAMMAR A-Z ; SPELLING ; PUNCTUATION ; WRITING TIPS ; USAGE ; EXPLORE . A. Cystatins are protein inhibitors of cystein proteinases belonging to the papain family. Exact figures for cowpea production are hard to come up with as it is not a major export crop. pp 99-117 | Cavalcante, R. B. M., Morgano, M. A., Silva, K. J. D., Rocha, M. M., Araújo, M. A. M., & Moreira-Araújo, R. S. R. (2016). And there won’t be any for sale to generate income; and the market, by implication, will witness short supply of cowpea,’’ she said. Marengo, M., Baffour, L. C., Buratti, S., Benedetti, S., Saalia, F. K., Carpen, A., Manful, J., Johnson, P.-N. T., Barbiroli, A., Bonomi, F., Pagani, A., Marti, A., & Iametti, S. (2017). [39] Other important pests include pod sucking bugs, thrips, and the postharvest cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus. Global pulses scenario: Status and outlook. Nutritional composition and antinutritional factors of mung bean seeds (, Pasquet, R. S. (1998). The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual herbaceous legume from the genus Vigna. B. N., Gonne, S., Hamadama, Y., Bell, J. M., & Yanou, N. N. (2015). [60][61] They can also be processed into a paste or flour. These bruchids may infest up to 100% of the stored seeds within 3 to 6 months under ordinary storage conditions. B., & Arêas, J. 2017; Hall 2004; Timko and Singh 2008). The plants are thought to be native to West Africa and are widely cultivated in warm regions around the world. Baranwal, D. (2017). GRAMMAR A-Z ; SPELLING ; PUNCTUATION ; WRITING TIPS ; USAGE ; EXPLORE . [62] Although little research has been conducted on the nutritional value of the leaves and immature pods, what is available suggests that the leaves have a similar nutritional value to black nightshade and sweet potato leaves, while the green pods have less antinutritional factors than the dried seeds. Vigna unguiculata is a member of the Vigna (peas and beans) genus. (2000). [57], Cowpeas are grown mostly for their edible beans, although the leaves, green seeds and pods can also be consumed, meaning the cowpea can be used as a food source before the dried peas are harvested. As a farmer, you should consider farming cowpea as a vegetable … [12][14] The original subgroups of stenophylla, dekindtiana, and tenuis appear to be common in all taxonomic treatments, while the variations pubescens and protractor were raised to subspecies level by a 1993 characterisation. A common snack in Africa is koki or moin-moin, where the cowpeas are mashed into a paste, mixed with spices and steamed in banana leaves. A., Karapanos, I., Carnide, V., Savvas, D., & Bebeli, P. J. In cowpea, cystatin-like polypeptides and a cDNA have been identified from seeds and metabolic functions have been attributed to them. Cowpea: A legume crop for a challenging environment. Commonly known as the pea family, Fabaceae features about 670 genera and nearly 20,000 species of trees, shrubs, vines, and herbs. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) vegetable plays a vital role in the health and nutritional security of human being and it belongs to the family of fabaceae, is a diploid with chromosome number 2n=22 and genome size is 600 Mb. pea. ENGLISH DICTIONARY; SYNONYMS; TRANSLATE; GRAMMAR . Phytic acid-to-iron molar ratio rather than polyphenol concentration determines iron bioavailability in whole-cowpea meal among young women. The crop is mainly grown for its seeds, which are high in protein, although the leaves and immature seed pods can also be consumed. Selected nutritional components and sensory attributes of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp) leaves. It has been widely reported to be drought tolerant. The seeds are usually cooked and made into stews and curries, or ground into flour or paste. Plant Sci 44:89–98 CrossRef Google Scholar Gepts P, Beavis WD, Brummer EC, Shoemaker RC, Stalker HT, Weeden NF, Young ND (2005) Legumes as a model plant family. Effect of cooking on the profile of phenolics, tannins, phytate, amino acid, fatty acid and mineral nutrients of whole-grain and decorticated vegetable cowpea (. Etokakpan, O. U., Eka, O. U., & Ifon, E. T. (1983). Cowpea; 8 Surprising Benefits of Cowpeas. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) vegetable plays a vital role in the health and nutritional security of human being and it belongs to the family of fabaceae, is a diploid with chromosome number 2n=22 and genome size is 600 Mb. [23] A pod can contain six to 13 seeds that are usually kidney-shaped, although the seeds become more spherical the more restricted they are within the pod. Cowpea crude protein as affected by cropping system, site and nitrogen fertilization. 2013. [21], The size and shape of the leaves vary greatly, making this an important feature for classifying and distinguishing cowpea varieties. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. Lagarda-Diaz, I., Guzman-Partida, A. M., & Vazquez-Moreno, L. (2017). A., Ateeq, N., & Sayyar Khan, M. (2006). It is a subspecies of the cowpea, an Old World plant domesticated in Africa, and is sometimes simply called a cowpea. An edible seed of this plant. Analysis of pre- and post-harvest practices of cowpea (. Adebooye, O. C., & Singh, V. (2007). "Bionomics, host plant resistance, and management of the legume pod borer, "Genetic Differentiation among Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Populations on Cultivated Cowpea and Wild Host Plants: Implications for Insect Resistance Management and Biological Control Strategies", "Pest management practices in cowpea: a review", "Effects of Transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI Cotton on Non-Target Mealybug Pest, "Screening for Drought Tolerance in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) at Seedling Stage under Screen House Condition", "Diversity of Drought Tolerance in the Genus Vigna", "Africa Imports - African Recipes - Red-Red Stew", "The Long and the Short of Yard-Long Beans", Cowpea research at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Network for Genetic Improvement of Cowpea for All (NGICA), Consensus Document on Compositional Considerations for New Varieties of COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata): Key Food and Feed Nutrients, Anti-nutrients and Other Constituents, OECD Series on the Safety of Novel Foods and Feeds No. 2. The story by another cowpea farmer, James Toryila from the Guma area of the state wasn’t different. (2010). Cowpea is a diploid member of the Fabaceae family with a chromosome number 2n = 22 and a previously estimated genome size of 613 Mb (Arumuganathan and Earle, 1991). Dumet, D., Adeleke, R., & Faloye, B. Effect of processing methods on some antinutritional factors in legume seeds for poultry feeding. It grows best in regions with an annual rainfall between 400 and 700 mm (16 and 28 in). The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Prinyawiwatkul, W., McWatters, K. H., Beuchat, L. R., Phillips, R. D., & Uebersak, M. A. Introduction and Importance of Cowpea: Cowpea crop is a Kharif legume crop and is grown across India for seeds, green pods, animal fodder, and organic green manure. A 1997 estimate suggests that cowpeas are cultivated on 12.5 million hectares (31 million acres) of land, have a worldwide production of 3 million tonnes and are consumed by 200 million people on a daily basis. Cowpea farming is popular in Kenya's arid and semi-arid areas due to its high nutrition value, short harvest period, and hardiness. An annual African plant in the pea family, widely cultivated in warm regions for food, forage, and soil improvement. [68] A seed can consist of 25% protein and has very low fat content. (2013). Subfamily: Faboideae. The common commercial variety is called the California Blackeye; it is pale-colored with a prominent black spot. Cowpea is one of common names in English: cowpea, bachapin bean, black-eyed pea, southern, crowder pea, china pea and cowgram; in Afrikaans: akkerboon, swartbekboon, koertjie; in Zulu: isihlumaya; in Venda: munawa (plant), nawa (fruits) imbumba, indumba; in … [6] The name was most likely acquired due to their use as a fodder crop for cows. An edible seed of this plant.... 2. black eyed peas - cowpea stock pictures, royalty … Vigna (E) EthnoBotanical Dictionary. Abstract. Cowpea Farming – A Step by Step Guide. [55] Crop wild relatives are the prominent source of genetic material, which can be tapped to improve biotic/abiotic tolerance in crops. 3 Cowpea Michael P. Timko1, Jeff D. Ehlers2, Philip A. Roberts3 1 Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA, e … Niger is the main exporter of cowpeas and Nigeria the main importer. As well as an important source of food for humans in poor, arid regions, the crop can also be used as feed for livestock. Family: Fabaceae. (2n=2x=22) is a member of the Phaseoleae tribe of the Legumi-nosae family. For Africans, it plays a pivotal role in the economy and nutrition of their daily life (Houssou et al. Farmed for its leaves and grains, Kunde leaves are more popular as a vegetable than as a grain. Cowpea is rich in diverse nutrients, highlighting high levels of protein. This paper describes VuC1, a new cystatin cDNA isolated from cowpea leaves (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). The black-eyed pea or black-eyed bean is a legume grown around the world for its medium-sized, edible bean. [21] Flower colour varies through different shades of purple, pink, yellow, and white and blue. [4] While they play a key role in subsistence farming and livestock fodder, the cowpea is also seen as a major cash crop by Central and West African farmers, with an estimated 200 million people consuming cowpea on a daily basis. The following write-up details about Cowpea farming techniques, tips, ideas and cultivation practices.. Cowpea Farming. Preet, K., & Punia, D. (2000). 304 European Journal of Sustainable Development (2012), 1, 2, 303-314 (Agbogidi, … Boukar, O., Belko, N., Chamarthi, S., Togola, A., Batieno, J., Owusu, E., Haruna, M., Diallo, S., Umar, M. L., Olufajo, O., & Fatokun, C. (2018). Most cowpeas are grown on the African continent, particularly in Nigeria and Niger, which account for 66% of world production. Bioactive constituents in pulses and their health benefits. Cowpea also known as Vigna unguiculata is a legume of the family Fabaceae ⁄ Leguminosae. RNAi-based enhanced resistance to cowpea severe mosaic virus and cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus in transgenic cowpea. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers) also known as black eye pea is a herbaceous annual crop mostly grown in the dry agro‐ecologies of the tropics in Latin America, Africa and south Asia. [41], Severe C. maculatus infestations can affect 100% of the stored peas and cause up to 60% loss within a few months. Commonly known as the pea family, Fabaceae features about 670 genera and nearly 20,000 species of trees, shrubs, vines, and herbs. Vegetable cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] [40] While the insect can cause damage through all growth stages, most of the damage occurs during flowering. WORD ORIGINS ; LANGUAGE QUESTIONS ; WORD LISTS; SPANISH DICTIONARY; More . It is one of the important kharif crops grown for vegetable, grain, forage and green manuring purpose. 78.46.201.52. One peduncle can support four or more seed pods. [49] The cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), discovered in 1959, has become a useful research tool. Tresina, P. S., & Mohan, V. R. (2011). The antinutritional components of grains. [12][13] The classification of the wild relatives within V. unguiculata is more complicated, with over 20 different names having been used and between 3 and 10 subgroups described. Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Cystatins are protein inhibitors of cystein proteinases belonging to the papain family. Diallel analysis of polyphenols and phytates content in cowpea (. They can have a smooth or rough coat and be speckled, mottled, or blotchy. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, 2n = 2x = 22) also called as southern-pea and black-eyed pea, is well adapted to the tropics. Breeding for adaptation to drought and heat in cowpea. Generally, 133,000 seeds are planted per hectare (54,000/acre) for the erect varieties and 60,000 per hectare (24,000/acre) for the climbing and trailing varieties. [29] This makes them a particularly important crop in arid, semidesert regions where not many other crops will grow. Cowpea is a highly … Abstract. [35] More modern methods include storage in airtight containers, using gamma irradiation, or heating or freezing the seeds. [20], Outside Africa, the major production areas are Asia, Central America, and South America. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4557.2007.00155.x, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2016.12.002, https://doi.org/10.18805/ajdfr.v36i03.8960, https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398909527508, https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(83)90001-8, https://doi.org/10.5935/1806-6690.20170092, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2010.00112.x, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2004.07.005, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.05.011, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.01.005, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2009.02.004, https://doi.org/10.1080/03670244.2011.552371, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2013.04.010, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-100596-5.00111-6, https://doi.org/10.15192/PSCP.SA.2015.12.1.4651, https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM-04-16-0092-FI, https://doi.org/10.1080/10408390701326243, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.01.007, https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(94)90051-5, https://doi.org/10.1080/10408399609527734, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2015.04.058, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-016-2391-9, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4514.2005.00014.x, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2011.02678.x, Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, College of Food Engineering, Harbin University of Commerce, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-41376-7_6. 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